Regimental Medical System: A Study of the Surgeons of the 41st
Regiment of Foot during the War of 1812
Regimental Medical System
British army of the early nineteenth century possessed two tiers of
medical care for its soldiers; the Army Medical Department and the
regimental medical system. The Army Medical Department was the staff
branch of the medical services, responsible for the provision of care
and medical standards throughout the army, and with particular
responsibilities towards the administration of general hospitals and the
medical services of large formations on campaign.
In addition, each unit possessed its own surgeons who were part
of the regimental staff.
1812 the medical establishment of a British infantry battalion or
cavalry regiment consisted of a surgeon who ranked nominally as a
captain, and two assistant surgeons who had the status of lieutenants,
although neither were allowed to exercise military command beyond their
medical responsibilities. Wartime
punctuated by chronic shortages of Medical Department staff officers,
often resulted in the secondment of regimental surgeons for staff duty,
or to supervise detachments of sick and wounded as units moved from
location to location.
surgeons provided immediate medical care to the unit in which they
served. Whereas the
structure of the Army Medical Department mirrored the civilian medical
community and was strictly delineated between physicians, surgeons,
apothecaries and supply officers, regimental surgeons’ duties
encompassed each of these fields out of necessity.
They were responsible for the regimental hospital, as well as
advising the commanding officer on matters concerning the health of the
soldiers. In combat,
regimental surgeons tended the wounded, administering first aid and
performing necessary surgical operations upon the casualties.
Though they were officially regimental personnel in matters of
administration and pay, their medical and fiscal activities fell under
the overall scrutiny of the Medical Department.
surgeons were ideally drawn from graduates of the various medical
Following an examination of their competency by a medical board,
they were admitted to the Army Medical Department as “hospital
mates” to learn military procedure, and then posted to a regiment as
assistant surgeons. The
demands of two decades of warfare during the Napoleonic period
occasionally led to a relaxation of professional qualifications expected
of medical personnel. At
times, men with only diplomas or certificates of attendance from medical
schools were accepted as surgeons. During
the massive expansion of the British army in the 1790s, this led to
rampant accusations of incompetence and quackery amongst regimental
surgeons, which were sadly often true.
However, by 1810 several major reforms had significantly reduced
issues within the army’s medical system.
By the War of 1812, though some surgeons, such as the illustrious
George Guthrie – one of the most famous and skilled surgeons in the
Peninsular War – lacked the formal qualification of a medical
doctorate, most British army surgeons tended to the sick and wounded
with the utmost zeal, skill and devotion to duty.
The regimental surgeons of the 41st Regiment were no
exception, and did so under the arduous conditions of wartime service in
the outbreak of war on
the 41st Regiment was one of the few units serving in
part of the weak garrison of
It was posted to
1799, and served at various postings throughout Upper and
the next thirteen years. The
41st gained early distinction in the war, with a detachment
of the regiment serving under the command of Major-General Brock at the
Later that fall, the 41st formed part of the British
and Amerindian force that thwarted an American invasion at
13 October, though Brock was felled by an American sharpshooter early in
year 1813 was one of considerable hardship for the regiment.
At the Battle of Frenchtown on 22 January, a large detachment of
the 41st suffered 50% casualties, and the regimental aid post
was nearly overrun. Afterwards,
the 41st served in Brigadier-General Procter’s failed
Several detachments were embarked as marines on Commodore
Barclay’s squadron on
only to be taken prisoner after the defeat of the squadron at the Battle
of Lake Erie on
The remainder of the regiment was engaged in the disastrous
defeat at the
following which the majority of the first battalion was taken prisoner
and held captive under terrible conditions in the
That fall, the 41st was reconstituted by the
amalgamation of the survivors of the first battalion with the second
battalion sent to
spring as reinforcements. Thus
amalgamated, the 41st participated in the capture of
During 1814, the 41st served in the
The regiment gained particular fame at the bloody Battle of
Lundy’s Lane on
as well as the siege of
where the flank companies of the 41st suffered massive
casualties during Lt. Gen. Drummond’s failed night assault on 15
August. Following the news
of the end of hostilities in January 1815, the 41st performed
garrison duty in
and was dispatched to
summer to participate in the
The regiment arrived in
late for the battle, but subsequently joined the Allied army of
of the 41st
(1st Bttn., 18 May 1803 – 29 July 1813)
Thom received an M.A. from King’s College,
1791. He joined the army as
a Surgeon’s Mate with the 88th Regiment on
and transferred to the 35th Regiment on
Following reforms within the army medical administration, he was
commissioned Assistant Surgeon in the 35th on
Thom was promoted to Surgeon of the 35th, seeing action
during the 1799 campaign in
was placed briefly on half pay. On
returned to full pay as Surgeon of the 41st Regiment, and
By 1806, he was serving at
and was recorded amongst the attendees at the funeral of a barrister
killed in a duel in nearby
on 10 October that year.
the commencement of hostilities, Thom appears to have remained with the
half of the regiment stationed at
He was listed as a staff surgeon amongst the official mourners at
Brock’s funeral at
suggesting he had been previously detached from the 41st for
staff duty with the Medical Department.
This point is confirmed by a letter written by Deputy Inspector
of Hospitals James Macaulay in February 1813 addressing queries from
Thom regarding the treatment of wounded American prisoners and forage
rations for staff officers keeping horses.
Within this correspondence, Thom is referred to as an “Acting
Staff Surgeon”, indicating his appointment to the Medical Staff was
provisional. By his own
account, Thom served as principle medical officer for Brigadier-General
Vincent’s Right Division operating in the
the capture of
Thom tended the wounded during the retreat to
Though Vincent’s retreat was praised by his superiors for its
orderliness, Thom’s correspondence suggests the medical services were
neglected during the march. In
the midst of the retreat Thom wrote dispatches concerning the condition of
the casualties, addressing one in particular to, “Brigadier-General
Vincent or Officer Com’g. British Troops.”
Given Thom was the senior medical officer in the division (whose
duties typically kept him near headquarters), his uncertainty over who was
then in command of the Right Division is perhaps indicative of some degree
of disarray. Thom signed
himself by his permanent rank of Surgeon, 41st Regiment in this
dispatch, indicating that his appointment remained temporary.
Ultimately Thom’s staff appointment was ratified on
when he was officially promoted to Staff Surgeon, thereby ending his
service with the 41st. His
earlier detachment to staff duties and promotion removed him from any
involvement in the 41st Regiment’s misfortunes under
Procter’s command that year.
August 1813, Thom was stationed in
the senior medical officer there. One
of his chief concerns was the accommodation of the wounded and sick, for
which he requested the use of the town church (known simply as “The
Church”, and later to be dedicated to St. James in 1828).
The Rev. Dr. John Strachan, ever a champion of the Anglican faith,
reluctantly assented on the condition that another place for religious
worship was found immediately. Though
Strachan differed to Thom’s discretion and judgement in the matter, he
was grudging enough to insist that the use of the Church “be no longer
than the urgency of the case require.”
Evidently the facilities at
temporarily adequate, as the Church was only emptied of its pews and
converted into a hospital during the summer of 1814 to accommodate the
casualties from the fighting in the
1814. His activities there
were noted by Private George Ferguson of the 100th Regiment,
who was wounded at the Battle of Chippawa and evacuated to
and who vehemently disagreed with Thom’s insistence that his wounded arm
Tom [sic], the head surgeon,
said that my arm must come off immediately. I enquired if Dr. Ferguson was
in the hospital. - ‘Do you want to see him?’ was the reply. ‘I do,
sir,’ said I, and he was immediately sent for.
remained on the Medical Department staff in
the end of the war, and retired on half pay on
In 1822 he appears on the civil lists as a Commissioner for the
Peace and for taking affidavits. Some
time after 1830 he also served as Staff Surgeon and Medical Superintendent
of the military settlements along the
fought a duel against Alexander McMillan, a local barrister.
The quarrel was apparently caused by Thom’s exclusion of
McMillan’s wife from a party held by the doctor for the town’s social
elite. After an initial
exchange of shots, in which Thom suffered a minor wound to the leg, the
issue was resolved amicably.
Alexander Thom died in
John Garland Harford
Garland Harford was commissioned Hospital Mate on
A year later, he was appointed as Assistant Surgeon in the 17th
Regiment. He continued to
serve in that regiment till he was promoted to Surgeon in the 101st
exchanged into the Royal Newfoundland Fencible Regiment with which he
served at the outbreak of the war.
exchanged again to the post of Surgeon in the 41st Regiment on
Which battalion Harford transferred into is uncertain.
Technically, Thom was
still on the regimental books as Surgeon of the 1/41st, and
would not officially leave the regiment till his promotion on 29 July.
Furthermore, the second battalion had arrived at
a surgeon having been appointed.
Harford therefore ought to have been posted to the vacancy in the
second battalion. Regardless
of seniority, it appears that he immediately did duty with the first
battalion. A return for Procter’s detachment of the Right Division dated
to August 1813 lists 5 staff officers (almost certainly including the
three medical staff) present with the 41st Regiment; Harford
must therefore have been amongst them.
Presumably Harford was sent where the need was greatest, i.e. to
the first battalion engaged on active service, and his appointment may
have been in anticipation of Thom’s eventual promotion.
Ultimately he is listed on a roll of 1/41st officers
compiled by Brig. Gen. Procter at
October 1814, confirming his assignment to the first battalion one means
appears to have escaped capture at the
the Thames, as his name is not listed amongst those imprisoned officers of
the 41st subsequently held in
Thereafter, Harford’s services are unclear.
The amalgamated 41st would have had three supernumerary
medical officers, and it is uncertain whether the additional personnel
accompanied the regiment during the 1814 campaign, or were immediately
detached to other duties. Reports
written by Assistant Surgeon Kennedy in
November 1814 indicate Harford was in garrison in
the rest of the 41st, but further information is elusive.
Harford remained with
the 41st until 18 January 1816, when he retired on half pay and
He died on 21 March 1830 in
Surgeon Thomas Moore
(1st Bttn., 21 December 1809 – 26 January 1815)
Moore was commissioned as a Hospital Mate for General Service on 12
October 1809. On 21 December
1809 he was appointed to the position of Assistant Surgeon, 41st
Regiment, and embarked for
early-war activities are unknown, though he presumably remained with the
41st in the Niagara region, as he is not listed amongst
Brock’s forces at
Along with Surgeon Harford and Assistant Surgeon Faulkner,
in Procter’s offensive operations into
1813, as suggested by the return from that expedition, and remained with
Procter’s contingent until after the
escaped capture at the battle, though not without some personal loss, as
he submitted a claim from
14 June 1814 for the loss of his personal baggage in the ensuing rout.
Like Harford, he was listed amongst the serving officers of the
1/41st on the roll drafted by Procter in October 1814.
promoted to Surgeon in the 58th Regiment on 26 January 1815.
On 3 August 1815 he exchanged into the Canadian Fencibles Regiment
on half pay on 14 June 1816, and settled in the
He died in
13 May 1818.
Surgeon William Faulkner
(1st Bttn., 14 June 1810 – 7 March 1816)
Portrait of Assistant Surgeon William Faulkner, c.1811 (private coll.)
Faulkner was commissioned into the army as a Hospital Mate for General
Service with the Army Medical Department on 17 May 1810.
Shortly thereafter, he was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the 41st
Regiment, and sailed to join the regiment in
Faulkner was noted as serving with detachments of his regiment at
the summer of 1812, Faulkner accompanied the detachment of the 41st
that fought at the Battle of Monguagon, MI on 9 August 1812.
His presence there was noted by Thomas Verchères de Boucherville,
an acquaintance and Indian agent who also participated under the command
of Captain Muir of the 41st.
Several days after the battle, Verchères consulted Faulkner
regarding his slow recovery from a wound he sustained at Monguagon.
Faulkner agreed to allow a
personally recommended by Tecumseh to treat Verchères with compresses
made of local herbs. Verchères
recalled the experience in his memoirs:
consulted with Dr. Faulkner of the regiment and with Dr. Richardson,
my regular physician, and both agreed that there was no harm in the
treatment. My Indian doctor
therefore returned the next day and started with his herbs.
Ten days later the wound was healed and I was able to resume my
actions in this case are a singular example of the willingness of British
surgeons to adopt unfamiliar Native remedies, as well as an example of
cross-cultural exchange of medical knowledge between Native and European
doctors during the conflict. One
week later, Faulkner served with Brock’s forces at the siege and capture
and was a recipient of prize money from the victory.
Like Surgeon Harford, he likely participated in Procter’s foray
in to the
1813, his presence being accounted for in the return of the 41st
August of that year.
Following the defeat at the
the Thames, Faulkner escaped to the
with the remnants of the 41st.
active service apparently affected the state of his health, as he was
, and took a leave of
absence after the war. In 1815
the 41st were dispatched to
campaign, with Faulkner
rejoining the 41st at
He exchanged into the 1st Royal Veteran Battalion on 7 March 1816,
and became the assistant surgeon at
Upon the disbandment of the 1st Royal Veteran Battalion,
he retired on half pay on 25 August 1816.
William Faulkner returned to his birthplace in Huntingdonshire and
married Ann Bond Gray on 18 September 1816.
Faulkner then moved to Polton, Bedfordshire where he established a
private practice. He died on 2 December 1823 at the age of thirty-six,
apparently from "an affectation of the lungs due to his service in
Mrs. Faulkner applied for and
received an army pension on account of her late husband’s services.
(2nd Bttn., 29 July 1813 – 25 June 1815)
of Dr. William Robertson c. 1832 (Courtesy of
the landed gentry, William Robertson joined the British army at the age of
13. In 1797 he was appointed
to an ensigncy in the 73rd Regiment and saw action during the
Irish Rebellion of 1798. From
1802 and 1805 Robertson studied medicine at the
one of the foremost medical schools in
Though he attended three sessions, he did not graduate, choosing
instead to re-enter the army as a surgeon.
At that time regulations issued in 1795 regarding the
qualifications of medical officers were still quite lax, and evidently
Robertson’s professional knowledge was judged sufficient for employment
as a medical officer despite his lack of formal certification from
Accordingly, he was appointed Hospital Mate on 9 July 1805.
Robertson therefore is but one of a myriad of medical officers in
the British forces who served without the formal qualification of an
academic medical degree.
en route to
Robertson was shipwrecked off
1805. He convalesced in the
home of William Campbell, the island’s attorney-general (and later Chief
Justice of Upper Canada), whose daughter, Amelia Elizabeth, he
subsequently married. Upon his
recovery, Robertson was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the 49th
Regiment, stationed in
on 23 October 1806. Following
the death of Surgeon Lennon on 6 July 1809, Robertson temporarily acted as
regimental surgeon, though the vacancy was ultimately filled by Assistant
Surgeon John W. Korb of the 41st.
Acting in a higher rank without benefit of increased pay caused
Robertson financial strain, as he submitted a petition for the
reimbursement of his expenses to Governor-General Sir James Henry Craig on
24 October 1809.
the winter of 1812 / 1813 Robertson was stationed at various posts along
Writing to relatives from
he complained about the lack of medical staff throughout the colonies:
winter I had charge of a
and for the last two months have been the only medical man at this post
where there ought to be three. However,
we have a hard duty lately for the scarcity of Army Surgeons in this
country, more are daily expected from
3 June 1813 Robertson accompanied a party of the 100th Regiment
involved in the capture of American gunboats on Lake Champlain near
commanding officer and I went in a Row Boat with Two flat Bottomed Boats
full of men to act according to circumstances … There were ten wounded
& one killed of the Americans only two of our men wounded being the
only medical officer on the Island I had my hands full for half an hour on
their arrival … it is to me unaccountable how we escaped so well for
Round, Grape & Canister were falling like hail all around…
remained with the 49th until promoted to Surgeon of the 2/41st
on 29 July 1813. During the
winter of 1813 / 1814 Robertson served with the amalgamated 41st
Regiment, participating in the capture of
18 December 1813. By the end
of the war he was stationed at
Robertson’s relatively uneventful time there was punctuated by a
bizarre and tragic incident in April 1815.
According to a letter written by Robertson’s wife, his colleague,
Surgeon Joseph Morrice of the 16th Regiment (then stationed at
the fort) died of uncontrolled haemorrhaging from the oesophagus on 19
The cause of death was Morrice’s having swallowed a coin, a
practice he was apparently prone to for an obscure reason.
In the midst of Morrice’s agonies Robertson was called to attend
his colleague, but could not move due to being prostrated by an attack of
malaria, and Morrice expired shortly thereafter.
the 2/41st was reduced at the conclusion of hostilities,
Robertson was granted permission to remain in
and retired to
half pay on 25 June 1815. As
officers’ half pay was usually drawn in
a biannual basis, Robertson specifically requested to have his half pay
paid from the Canadian establishment to avoid the inconvenience of delays
in the transmission of funds.
Nearly seven months later, Robertson’s atypical arrangements had
yet to be approved, and he was forced for write again to the Military
Secretary for a response.
Presumably his request was later granted.
the war, Robertson embarked on a lengthy and varied career in public
service. He served in a number
of public medical offices, and helped found both the
1819, as well as the medical faculty of
Somewhat belatedly, he received an honorary MD from the
1832. Robertson was also
active politically, being appointed a magistrate in
1818. His chief notoriety
stems from his involvement in the
riots in 1832, when British troops under his authority fired on civilian
rioters. His handling of the
incident was severely criticised by Louis-Joseph Papineau, leader of the
1837 Rebellion in
Papineau’s condemnation prompted Robertson to challenge him to a
duel, which Papineau refused to accept, on the excuse that he was
critiquing Robertson as a public official, not as a private individual.
Robertson continued to hold public offices until his retirement
from ill health in 1842, and he died in
18 July 1844.
Surgeon John Kennedy
(2nd Bttn., 4 March 1813 – 25 Aug. 1815)
John Kennedy was commissioned as a Hospital Mate for General Service
on 6 January 1813. On 4 March
1813 he was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the newly formed 2/41st
Regiment. That spring he
with reinforcements sent to replenish the regiment’s first battalion,
and arrived at
15 May 1813.
June Kennedy was at
from whence he was ordered with a draft of the 2/41st to
reinforce the 1/41st then serving in the west under Procter.
However, upon his arrival at
was temporarily diverted to serve with the
by Commodore Thomas Barclay, as was appointed as surgeon of the HMS Lady
Prevost. Along with the
rest of the 41st serving as marines, Kennedy was taken prisoner
at the Battle of Lake Erie that October and held at
Whilst treating the wounded there, Kennedy recalled having
performed “several of the difficult operations in surgery with success
(some of which had been deemed impracticable by both our own, and the
American surgeons) … having seen every man who was wounded in the action
cured of his wounds… [and] had the pleasure of leaving them with every
mark of their gratitude and with every consciousness of having done his
Commodore Barclay himself noted Kennedy’s professional merit,
remarking that his “…most unremitting and scientific zeal and
attention to his professional duty entitles him to His Majesty’s
Nevertheless, his services and capture evidently caused Kennedy
financial distress. After his
repatriation from the
May 1814, he submitted a request for additional pay as an acting naval
surgeon due to his attachment to the
and solicited the support of Commodore Barclay in that venture, though it
is unknown whether he received recompensation.
Furthermore, Kennedy was also included on a list of 41st
officers petitioning in February 1815 for the reimbursement of personal
losses incurred while being held as prisoners in the
7 October 1814, Kennedy met the first contingents of 41st
prisoners returning from incarceration in the
Kennedy was shocked by the frail condition of the men, and wrote an
emotional letter to Lieutenant Colonel Evans of the 41st
describing the disembarkation of the prisoners:
At the first sight of our poor fellows, it was with difficulty I
could suppress my feelings of pity at their miserable condition, and of
indignation at their rascality [sic]
treatment which was the cause of it … The further we advanced the
scene of misery deepened … we arrived gradually to the very essence of
everything miserable – nakedness, disease & death.
later noted that more than thirty prisoners of the initial contingent died
from the effects if their maltreatment while en route to
Inundated with scores of sick and emaciated prisoners, Kennedy
established a general hospital for them at Ancaster.
Accommodations for Kennedy’s patients were quickly found in
houses appropriated from American sympathisers, as well as the Union
Hotel, in which several of those individuals were tried at the “Bloody
Assize” trials several months previously.
By late November 1814, of the 107 enlisted men in his charge,
Kennedy reported “they certainly will be of no use to His Majesty this
winter & a considerable part of it will pass before they are equal to
a long journey….”
However, he also noted his patients were “well lodged, well
clothed and well fed,” and were “very comfortable.”
Kennedy’s attentiveness to the sick at Ancaster was corroborated
by Physician Erly of the Medical Department, who inspected the hospital at
a time when the number of sick repatriated soldiers under Kennedy’s care
had increased to 150 men.
the war, Kennedy was placed on half pay on 25 August 1815, and returned to
Later that fall, he was returned to full pay as Assistant Surgeon
in the 3rd Garrison Battalion.
Transferring once again, Kennedy became Assistant Surgeon of the 1st
Ceylon Regiment on 25 January 1816, and proceeded to the
Kennedy then served with his regiment during the Ceylon Rebellion
of 1817 – 1818, and was killed in action by the rebels in 1818.
Surgeon William Pardey
(2nd Bttn., 4 March 1813 -
12 May 1814)
William Pardey joined the 2/41st on 4 March 1813, having
previously served as an assistant surgeon in
the North Mayo Militia. On 12
May 1814 he transferred to the 19th Light Dragoons, also
that time. He continued to
serve until placed on half pay on 25 September 1817.
Pardey obtained his MD from the
1818, suggesting he had remained in
the end of the war. Like
Surgeon Robertson, he is another example of a surgeon who served without
holding a medical doctorate. Pardey
returned to full pay on the Medical Staff on 25 December 1822, although
his exact rank is not recorded.
On 26 April 1831 he transferred to the Rifle Brigade, and died at
30 June 1832.
Surgeon William Forsyth
(2nd Bttn., 26 January 1815 – 25th Dec. 1818)
was commissioned as a Hospital Assistant in the Army Medical Department on
21 June 1813. On 26 January
1815 he was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the 41st Regiment,
most likely to fill the vacancy caused by Pardey’s transfer to the 19th
LD the previous May. On 25
December 1818 he was placed on half pay.
rolls, he died sometime before December 1820.
the pervasive stereotype of incompetent military doctors during the
period, the regimental surgeons of the 41st Regiment played an
important and successful role in providing medical care to the British
forces during the War of 1812. In
the face of many hardships, they were frequently called upon to tend to
large numbers of sick and wounded, having to make do with the materials
and facilities at hand in largely rural Canada.
The surgeons of the 41st showed a strong devotion to
duty, as Surgeon Thom demonstrated by remaining with the wounded
throughout the retreat to
May 1813. Far from being
incompetent butchers, they were technically proficient in matters of
surgery and professionally capable of providing for their patients’
comfort, as borne out by Assistant Surgeon Kennedy’s efforts after the
Battle of Lake Erie and later in Ancaster.
They were innovative medical practitioners, willing to try
unconventional treatments like Assistant Surgeon Faulkner did at
Several remained in
the war, and made significant contributions to their new communities, both
medically and otherwise, as did Surgeon Robertson in
The 41st Regiment was a mainstay of the defence of
the War of 1812, and the services of the regimental surgeons of the 41st
were every bit as difficult, challenging and no less creditable than those
endured by their more famous colleagues serving in the Peninsular War.
W. Caniff, The Medical Profession in
– 1850 (
, 1980), p. 649.
Macaulay to Freer,
11 February 1813, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 689, p. 203.
Thom to Vincent or Officer Commanding British Troops, On Service (
29 May 1813, LAC RG 8 I, Vol. 689, p. 70.
Strachan to Thom,
, 9 August 1813,
James Cathedral Archives, War of 1812
Fond. Extract of original
included in a letter written by Mr. G. Spragge of
to a descendent of Thom, 30 September
of the American War 1812 – 1814”, in Tiger
Dunlop’s Upper Canada (
1967), p. 56.
of Pte. George Ferguson, 100th Regiment (Extracts kindly
provided by Prof. R. Hobbs).
this namesake doctor twice, at
but the author has not been able to trace his identity further.
H. Haliday, Murder Among Gentlemen: A History of Duelling in
, 1999), p. 59.
Roll of Commissioned Officers in
the Medical Service of the British Army (
1917) p. 128.
roll does not indicate which battalion Harford exchanged into, nor
does regimental correspondence provide any evidence at the time in
Kennedy to Prevost,
, 18 May 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912,
pp. 33 – 37. In a
memorial petition for extra pay on account of his services with the
squadron, Kennedy describes himself as
the senior medical officer in the 2/41st at the time of his
attachment to the squadron during the summer of 1813, indicating no
surgeon had been appointed at that time.
“Disembarkation Return of a Detachment of the Right Division of the
Army Commanded by Brigadier General Proctor, Sandusky State of Ohio US
1st August 1813,” British Military and Naval Records 1757
– 1899, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 679, p. 370.
“Return of Officers of the 41st Regiment of Foot,”
Correspondence of the 41st Regiment, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912,
p. 86A. This list is not
dated, but is included amongst regimental correspondence sent by
dated to approximately fall 1814.
Interestingly, it only lists officers of the 1st
battalion, even though both battalions were present in
by that time.
“List of British
Prisoners of War at the Frankfort Penitentiary, 1813-1814,” Kentucky
Historical Society (Transcript kindly provided by Mr. J. Yaworsky).
Kennedy to Harford, Ancaster, 23 November 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912,
I am indebted to Prof. R. Hobbs for the information on Harford’s
place of death.
, 14 June 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912,
“Return of Officers of the 41st Regiment of
M.M. Quaife ed. “The Chronicles of Thomas Verchères de
Boucherville.” in War on the
the chronicles of Thomas Verchères de Boucherville, and The
Capitulation by an
1940), p. 86. Verchères
refers to Muir as being a major, although he was only a captain at the
time. This may be
indicative of Muir holding a brevet or local rank for the purposes of
commanding the mixed force of regulars, militia and Indians of which
Verchères was a part.
Dr. Robert Richardson, civilian Garrison Surgeon at
to the war. In February
1813 he was appointed to the Provincial Marine, was captured at the
Battle of Lake Erie, and upon repatriation was appointed as surgeon to
the Indian Department in the Western Districts in March 1814.
Ibid., pp. 104 – 105.
List ledger, Capture of Detroit,”
24, G 70. Faulkner appears
to have personally entered his name on this list.
Return of a Detachment of the Right Division”, ibid.
Surgeon William Faulkner of the 41st Regiment
during the War of 1812”, The
War of 1812 Website, c. 1997
for the Conduct of the Medical Staff to be Employed on Foreign Service
General’s Office Book,
LAC, RG 8 I,Vol. 1332, p. 120.
These instructions are transcribed from a War Office circular
28 April 1795.
Robertson to Craig,
, 24 October 1809, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol.
1334, p. 88. This is a
transcript of the memorial petition sent by Robertson to Governor
General Sir James Craig, copied into the Commissary General’s Office
W. Robertson to J. Robertson,
Noix, 5 June 1813, Private Collection.
For this and the following letter I am indebted to Mrs. J Shaw
, a descendent of Robertson.
A.E. Robertson to D. Robertson,
, 24 April 1815, Private Collection.
Robertson to Foster,
, 22 November 1815, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol.
914, pp. 88-89.
Robertson to Foster,
, 16 May 1816, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 914,
“Robertson, William.” in Dictionary
of Canadian Biography (Vol. VII) (
1988), p. 751.
Kennedy to Prevost,
, 18 May 1814.
Barclay to Freer,
, 30 May 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912,
Kennedy to Barclay,
, 17 May 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912,
Evans to Freer,
, 10 February 1815, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol.
913, pp. 22-23.
Kennedy to Evans, Long Point, 8 October 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 693,
pp. 42 – 43.
“Return of the Sick of the 41st Regimt. In Hospitals at
Ancaster, November 25th 1814,” Correspondence of the 41st
Regiment, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 912, pp. 99-100.
Compiled by Kennedy, this list indicates the names and
illnesses of the 107 former POWs under his care at Ancaster on that
date, the vast majority of whom were suffering from debilitating
dysentery or intermittent fevers.
He also notes that 15 or 20 had died in captivity in
, 5 had died crossing Lake Erie while
being repatriated, 1 died upon landing at Long Point, and 7 died
within two days of their return to
Thanks to Prof. Ray Hobbs for this information.
Kennedy to Harford, Ancaster, 23 November 1814.
Erly to Foster, Fort George, 7 November 1814, LAC, RG 8 I, Vol. 693,
Copyright: Access Heritage Inc (formerly The Discriminating General) 2008
Unless otherwise noted, all information, images, data contained within
this website is protected by copyright under international law.
Any unauthorized use of material contained here is strictly forbidden.
All rights reserved.